Thursday, December 22, 2016
The Other Warburgs
Over the years, I have often been asked if we're related to the famous Warburgs.
When we were children, we were told that all Warburgs were related. Later on, a member of our Warburg family did some genealogical research and determined that we are not related to them.
In any event, we are connected to them by the fact that members of their family provided the affidavit for a member of our family, Uncle Joe, when he emigrated from Germany in the late 1930's. An affidavit of support is a document an individual signs to accept financial responsibility for another person, usually a relative, who is coming to the United States to live permanently.
Note from cousin Ronnie Warburg:
Your father's uncle claimed that we were related to the famous Warburgs.
However, approximately 10 to 15 years ago, I went to the Jewish Museum and on that evening the famous Warburgs who now hail from Westport, Conn. were present and were signing the newly acclaimed book, The Warburgs, by Ron Chernow. I spoke with some of them, and I didn't get the impression that we were related.
At this point, I accept what cousin Herbert Warburg shows in our family tree- there were 3 Warburg families who took the name from a town called Warburg. None of them are related to each other- Our original name was Hirsch.
Here's Wikipedias' take on "the other Warburgs."
The Warburg family is a prominent American banking family of German Jewish descent, noted for their varied accomplishments in biochemistry, botany, political activism, economics, investment banking, law, physics, classical music, art history, pharmacology, physiology, finance, private equity and philanthropy.
They originated as the Venetian Jewish del Banco family, one of the wealthiest Venetian families in the early 16th century. Following restrictions imposed on banking and the Jewish community, they fled to Bologna, and thence to Warburg, in Germany, in the 16th century, after which they took their name.
The family re-established itself in Altona, near Hamburg in the 17th century, and it was there that M. M. Warburg & Co. was established in 1798, among the oldest still existing investment banks in the world. Other banks created by members of the family include: M.M.Warburg & Co., Warburg Pincus, S. G. Warburg & Co. (becoming UBS Warburg).
Felix M. Warburg
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Felix Moritz Warburg (14 January 1871 – 20 September 1937) was a German-born American banker. He was a member of the Warburg banking family of Hamburg, Germany.
Warburg was an important leader of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, established to help the Jews in Europe in the period leading up to, and especially during, the Great Depression. Warburg actively raised funds in the United States on behalf of European Jews who faced hunger following World War I. As early as 1919, he was quoted in the New York Times discussing the dire situation of Jewish war sufferers.
As a result of his philanthropic activities, a new Jewish village established in Mandate Palestine in 1939, Kfar Warburg, was named after him. He was a trustee of the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York.
The Felix M. Warburg House, in New York's Upper East side was donated by his widow and today houses the Jewish Museum.
By Gryffindorderivative work: Fpo (talk) - Felix_Warburg_Mansion_006.JPGFelix_Warburg_Mansion_007.JPG, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10490753
American Museum of Natural History - The Felix M. Warburg Hall of New York State Environment focuses on the village of Pine Plains and Stissing Mountain in New York’s Dutchess County, an area that includes mountains, natural lakes, forests, rock formations, and both wild and cultivated land. The hall’s exhibits highlight the changes in the landscape since Precambrian times, its seasonal and natural cycles, and its plant and animal life.
Cutaway views of the mountain and terrain, along with fossils, mineral specimens, and topographical maps, illustrate the geologic history of the area. Another series of exhibits describes the role of agriculture on the local ecology, with displays about crop rotation, the management of an apple orchard, natural fertilizers in the soil, and the cycles of nutrition and decay. Dioramas also showcase forest and wetland ecosystems.
An exhibit about life in the soil depicts animals living below ground in a farmer’s lawn and at the edge of woodland, with views of tunnels, nests, and burrows used by moles, chipmunks, mice, yellowjackets, Japanese beetle larvae, ants, and earthworms.
Paul Moritz Warburg (August 10, 1868 – January 24, 1932) was a Jewish German-born American banker, and an early advocate of the U.S. Federal Reserve System.
The cartoon character, Oliver "Daddy" Warbucks in the Little Orphan Annie series, was purportedly inspired by Warburg's life and times.
Otto Heinrich Warburg
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Otto Heinrich Warburg (/ˈvɑːrbʊərɡ/; 8 October 1883 – 1 August 1970), son of physicist Emil Warburg, was a German physiologist, medical doctor and Nobel laureate. He served as an officer in the elite Uhlan (cavalry regiment) during the First World War, and was awarded the Iron Cross (1st Class) for bravery. Warburg is considered one of the 20th century's leading biochemists. He was the sole recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1931. In total, he was nominated for the award 47 times over the course of his career.
Cancer hypothesis (Warburg hypothesis)
Warburg hypothesized that cancer growth is caused by tumor cells generating energy (as e.g. adenosine triphosphate / ATP) mainly by anaerobic breakdown of glucose (known as fermentation, or anaerobic respiration). This is in contrast to healthy cells, which mainly generate energy from oxidative breakdown of pyruvate. Pyruvate is an end product of glycolysis, and is oxidized within the mitochondria. Hence, and according to Warburg, cancer should be interpreted as a mitochondrial dysfunction.
"Cancer, above all other diseases, has countless secondary causes. But, even for cancer, there is only one prime cause. Summarized in a few words, the prime cause of cancer is the replacement of the respiration of oxygen in normal body cells by a fermentation of sugar."
— Otto H. Warburg
Warburg continued to develop the hypothesis experimentally, and gave several prominent lectures outlining the theory and the data.
Today, mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are thought to be responsible for malignant transformation, and the metabolic changes are considered to be a result of these mutations rather than a cause.
Survival under the Nazis
When the Nazis came to power, people of Jewish descent were forced from their professional positions. However, the Nazis were hypocritical in their implementation of this policy, looking the other way in some cases where they could use Jewish scientists to advance the technology of the Reich. Despite having a Jewish father, Warburg was spared. By this time Warburg was studying cancer. Although banned from teaching, he was allowed to carry on his research.
In 1935, Hitler had a polyp removed from his vocal cords. It is believed that afterwards, he feared that could develop cancer, which may have allowed Warburg to survive. In 1941, Warburg lost his post briefly when he made critical remarks about the regime, but a few weeks later a personal order from Hitler's Chancellery ordered him to resume work on his cancer research. Göring also arranged for him to be classified as one-quarter Jewish.
According to the Reichsbürgergesetz from 1935 (cf. Nuremberg Laws) Warburg was considered by the Nazis a half-Jew (Halbjude) resp. Mischling and in September 1942 he issued an official request for equal status ("Gleichstellung") with Germans which was granted.
It is believed that Warburg was so totally dedicated to his work that he was prepared not only to stay in Germany but also to accept the Nazi treatment of his Jewish colleagues and his Jewish relatives. This was despite him having received an offer from the Rockefeller Foundation to continue to fund his work if he emigrated. After the end of the Second World War he made inquires about moving to the United States of America, but his approach was turned down.
In 1943 Warburg relocated his laboratory to the village of Liebenburg on the outskirts of Berlin to avoid ongoing air attacks.
Otto Warburg (botanist)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Not to be confused with Otto Heinrich Warburg, a distant cousin, Nobel Prize Laureate, namesake of the Warburg effect.
Otto Warburg (20 July 1859 – 10 January 1938), was a German botanist. He was also a notable industrial agriculture expert, as well as an active member of the Zionist Organization (ZO). From 1911–21, he served as the president of the ZO, which among other things, sought 'for the Jewish people a publicly and legally assured home in Palestine."
Other notable members of the Warburg family:
Moses Marcus Warburg (1763–1830), founder, with his brother Gerson Warburg (1765–1825), of M. M. Warburg & Co. in 1798.
Sara Warburg (1805–1884) married to Abraham Samuel Warburg (1798–1856), her cousin
Rosa Warburg (1833–1908), married to Paul Schiff, director of the Creditanstalt of Vienna
Siegmund Warburg (1835–1889), married to Théophilie Rosenberg
Abraham Samuel Warburg (1864–1933)
Georg Gabriel Warburg (1871–1923)
Siegmund George Warburg (1902–1982), founder of S. G. Warburg & Co, London
Moritz M. Warburg (1838–1910), married to Charlotte Oppenheim
Abraham M. Warburg (1866–1929), German art historian
Max M. Warburg (1867–1946), banker
Eric M. Warburg (1900–1990), founder of Warburg Pincus, married to Dorothea Thorsch
Marie Warburg, married to Michael Naumann (1941–), journalist
Paul M. Warburg (1868–1932), father of the Federal Reserve, married Nina Loeb (1863–1912) in 1895, the daughter of Solomon Loeb
James Warburg (1897–1969), economist, banker, advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt, married to Kay Swift (1897–1993)
Andrea Swift Warburg, married to Sidney Kaufman
Katharine Kaufman Weber (1955–), novelist, married to Nicholas Fox Weber.
Katharine Warburg (1870–1935), married to Isaac Dorfman (1868–1929), philanthropist, banker.
Felix M. Warburg (1871–1937), New York banker with Kuhn, Loeb & Co., philanthropist, married Frieda Schiff (1876–1958), daughter of Jacob H. Schiff, in 1895.
Gerald Felix Warburg, well-known cellist and conductor, married Natica Nast (1905–1987), daughter of Condé Nast
Edward Warburg (1908–1992), philanthropist and benefactor of the arts.
David M. Warburg, lawyer, partner at Seyfarth Shaw.
Ian Warburg, married to Jane Green (1968–) author, philanthropist.
Olga Warburg (1872–1895)
Fritz M. Warburg (1879–1962) living in Stockholm during World War I and II, father of Eva Warburg who organized Kindertransport to Sweden in 1938 and -39.
Louisa Warburg (1879–1973), married to Julius Derenberg (1873–1928)
Walter Julius Derenberg (1903–1975), legal scholar